Cheorwon-gun of today was called Cheorwon or Moeuldongbi in the Goguryeo period (37 BC – 668 AD). Its name was changed to Cheolseong during King Gyeongdeok’s rule of Silla (57 BC – 935 AD). Afterward, Gungye raised an army, founded a country in 901, designated the capital in Pungcheonwon (currently Hongwon-ri, Buk-myeon, Cheorwon-gun), decided on Majin as the name of the country, decided on Mutae and Seongchaek as the names of the era, and afterwards, changed the names of the era to Sudeokmanse and Jeonggye, ruling the country for 18 years. In 911, Gungye changed the name of the country to Taebong.
During King Taejo's rule of the Goryeo period (918), Cheorwon-gun of today was renamed Cheorwon, and later renamed Dongju. In the 14th year of King Seongong's rule (995), Danryeonsa (an official organization) was established here; in the 8th year of King Mokjong's rule (1005), Danryeonsa was abolished. In the 9th year of King Hyeongjong's rule (Musin year, 1018), Jugisa (an official organization) was established. The administrative level of Cheorwon was degraded so that Hyeongryeong (a local administration unit) was established in the 41th year of King Gojong's rule (1254); afterwards, Cheorwon was designated as Mok (a local administration unit). In the 2nd year of King Chungseon's rule (1310), Mok was changed to Cheorwon-bu again. In the 13th year of King Taejong's rule of the Joseon Dynasty, Cheorwon-bu was changed to Doho-bu according to the common practice of the Joseon Dynasty. In the 26th year of King Sejong's rule (1434), the jurisdiction was transferred from Gyeonggi-do to Gangwon-do, and in the 22nd year of King Yeongjo's rule (1724), Jingwan Doho-bu was moved here from Chuncheon and was reestablished. This Jingwan Doho-bu controlled three bu and six hyeon (local jurisdictional areas).
On May 26, 1895, in the 32nd year of King Gojong's rule, Cheorwon was designated as Choerwon-gun, Chuncheon-bu, according to No. 98 of the Royal Order. On August 4, 1869, it became Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, according to No. 36 of the Royal Order, and controlled nine myeons: Dongbyeol, Galmal, Seobyeon, Sinseo, Songnae, Gwanin, Bukmyeon, Eoeundong, and Myojang. Then, on March 1, 1914, according to the abolition and consolidation of guns and myeons, three myeons—including Naemun of Sakryeon-gun and Gyeonggi-do—were annexed to Cheorwon-gun to be reorganized into ten myeons: Seobyeon, Dongsong, Galmal, Eoun, Bukmyeon, Sinseo, Myojang, Naemun, Inmok, and Majang. On April 1, 1931, Seobyeon-myeon (Cheorwon-myeon) was promoted to an eup according to No. 103 of the departmental ordinance.
On August 15, 1945, with liberation from the Japanese colonial rule, Korea was divided into South and North at the boundary of 38 degrees north latitude so that the whole area of Cheorwon-gun was put under the control of the Communist North. Then, after the Korean War in 1950, according to the advance of the South Korean army to the north, part of Cheorwon-gun was won back. In January 1, 1963, in order to comply with No. 1178 of the law, eight eups and myeons (Gimhwa, Seomyeon, Geunbuk, Geundong, Geunnam, Wondong, Wonnam, Imnam) in Gimhwa-gun were incorporated into Choelwon-gun, while Sinseo myeon was incorporated into Yeoncheon-gun, Gyeonggi-do.
On December 28, 1972, in order to comply with No. 2395 of the law, former Yujeong-ri, Buk-myeon and former Dokgeom-ri, Naemun-myeon in Choelwon-gun were incorporated into Cheorwon-eup; former Jeongyeon-ri, Nam-myeon, Pyeonggang-gun was incorporated into Galmal-myeon. On July 1, 1973, according to No. 9409 of the Presidential Decree, Cheongyang-ri, Seo-myeon, Cheorwon-gun was incorporated into Gimhwa-eup.
On May 1, 1979, according to No. 9409 of the Presidential Decree, Galmal-myeon was promoted to an eup. In 1980, according to No. 10050 of the Presidential Decree, Dongsong-myeon was promoted to an eup, and as a result, Cheorwon came to have four eups and seven myeons, which is the current status of the area.